News Archive 2004
December 2004 - Modellers Meeting
A modelling meeting was held on the 10th Dec, to follow on from the discussions of the science meeting. Again held at Imperial college this meeting gave an opportunity for the numerical modellers to speak in detail about their simulations and how they compliment each other and the field and wind tunnel data sets.
The UWERN (Universities Weather Research Network) conference is taking place on the 13-15th Dec in Salford. A number of DAPPLE consortium members are attending and giving presentations. Please see www.uwern.ac.uk for conference programme.
November 2004 - Science Meeting
On the 30th Nov. 2004 the DAPPLE consortium held a Science Meeting at Imperial College London. Approximately 30 project members attended with 6 presentations covering: airflow, tracer release and modelling, wind tunnel studies, transport and pollution, personal exposure measurements and modelling, and numerical modelling of air flow. Much discussion was generated as to the current on going analysis, publications and following meetings to be arranged i.e. PAG/ASG etc. The future of DAPPLE over the remaining two years and beyond was also addressed.
November 2004 - Tracer Experiments
Four tracer experiments were carried out on the 2nd and 11th of November as additional work associated with DAPPLE. These involved emissions from ground and roof level sources, as well as two experiments in which tracer was released from a moving vehicle; probably the first time such an experiment had been conducted. A detailed programme of wind tunnel work was also undertaken to support the field experiments.
October 2004 - Public Meeting
Air Quality in Westminster and the Marylebone area - A public meeting was held on Monday 4th October at Westminster Council House. A keynote introduction to the meeting was given by Councillor Audrey Lewis. Three presentations followed, addressing: Westminster's Air Quality (Steve Neville); The DAPPLE project and Personal Exposure (Samantha Arnold and Surbjit Kaur); and Public Perception of Air Pollution, VivaCity2020 (Gemma Moore). The talks were followed by a question and answer session and open discussions.
September 2004 - UDMWG Meeting
DAPPLE results are presented by invitation to the US-UK Urban Dispersion Model Working Group (UDMWG) meeting, Edison House, London, 27-28 September 2004. Rex Britter and Alan Robins, 2004. Some recent UK experiments and modelling.
August 2004 - World Clean Air Congress, London
DAPPLE is well represented -
- Particulates - Regional Studies R.N. Colvile, S. Kaur, S. Belcher, M. Bell, R. Britter, M. Nieuwenhuijsen, A. Robins, A. Tomlin, D. Shallcross, 2004, Personal Exposure To Air Pollution At A Street Canyon Intersection: Implications For Air Quality Management In The Context Of Sustainable Development
- Emergency Response S.J Arnold, J. Barlow, S. Belcher, M. Bell, R. Britter, H. Cheng, R. Colvile, A. Dobre, S. Kaur 1, D. Martin, M. Neophytou, G. Nickless, C. Price, A. Robins, D. Shallcross, R. Smalley, J. Tate, A. Tomlin, 2004. Experiments In London - Dapple - Dispersion Of Air Pollution And Its Penetration Into The Local Environment
- D. Shallcross, 2004, Tracer Releases In London: Present Activities And Future Prospects
- Experiment And Modelling, 2004. R. Britter, A. Robins
June 2004 - Status of 2004 field work
The second field campaign has been successfully completed.
- All exposure work complete (yielding totals of about 200 samples for pedestrians and 80 for cyclists);
- All instrumentation functioned well (just one anemometer failed) - fixed instruments were taken-down by TfL on June 13th, marking the completion of the planned experimental period;
- A residual capability has been maintained in order to complete additional tracer studies;
- 2 full PFC tracer experiments completed.
Additional tracer experiments to be carried out:
- 1 plume spread experiment using SF6;
- 1 moving source experiment using SF6.
Field work, April - June, 2004
Field work in 2004 built on the success of the first DAPPLE measurement campaign, increased instrument availability, recent instrument developments and collaborations with other research groups. Experiments ran from 19 April to 13 June and as before involved continuous activities (using the capabilities described below) and tracer experiments on specific days. Funding for some additional tracer studies has been obtained and these will be completed later in the year.
Seventeen fixed measurement sites were used, mainly in the vicinity of the intersection between Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place. Instrumentation deployed included:
- 12 sonic anemometers;
- 3 used for reference wind measurement; 2 at 17m and 1 at 180m;
- 6 used on fixed sites (typically at 4 and 8m heights);
- 3 used as mobile instruments (2m height);
- QinetiQ short range, eye-safe Lidar (approx. 200m range, 1 day on-site);
- Meteorological information and forecasts from the UK Meteorological Office.
Pollution - fixed instrumentation
- SCOOT traffic data + manual counts;
- 14 Learian CO StreetBoxes (mostly lamp post mounted);
- 8 indoor StreetBoxes;
- 1 Learian Gold NO2 StreetBox;
- 2 Grimm particle counters;
- 1 Cambustion particle spectrometer (2 weeks on-site);
- 1 Puma Ozone monitor (3 weeks on-site);
- 4 CO2 monitors (in vertical array from street to roof level);
- London Super-Site and WCC Monitoring Site data.
Pollution - mobile instrumentation
- 2 routes for pedestrians and cyclists carrying:
- 4 HFPS packs (total PM2.5 exposure);
- 4 TSI P-Trak ultra-fine particle monitors;
- 4 Langan T15 CO monitors;
- Dictaphones, HSE Exposure Visualisation, GPS;
- Associated 0 - 2m profile data;
- 3 road-side sonic anemometers;
- Leeds ITS Instrumented car (2 days on-site).
- 2 release vans;
- 3 perfluorocarbon (PFC) sources;
- 1 SF6 source;
- 16x10 bag automatic sampling units, plus 4 manual units;
- laboratory NICI mass spectrometer for PFC;
- on-line, 1 minute sampling time, SF6 detector.
PFC tracer experiments, 3/6/04 and 9/6/04
A tracer experiment was undertaken at 4:30pm on Thursday 3rd June. The two release vans were parked on the southern side of York Street. One van was close to the release position used last year, i.e. near Thornton place, and the second van was approximately 90m to the West. Sixteen sampling boxes containing 10 x 3 min bag samplers were deployed between York Street and Melcombe Place to the South and North of Marylebone Road respectively, and between Wyndham Street in the West and the Super-site in the East. One sampling box was again located on the roof of WCC towards Gloucester Place. In addition to the 16 automated sampling boxes, 4 manual samplers were also deployed. The releases were undertaken for 15 mins with sampling occurring for a total of 30 mins.
The weather conditions on the day were overcast with a few spots of rain. In the morning winds were light and from a NW direction. During the day the passage of a warm front to the north of London brought a change in wind direction to the SW turning W and slightly greater wind speeds (forecast to occur between 3-5pm). On average the wind speed at 6m above the Library roof was approximately 3 m/s. On the roof during this period we also had the QinetiQ lidar measuring a wind profile at 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200m. This confirmed the existence of mainly WSW winds. In the street two mobile sonic anemometers were located near the release vans. A selection of the sampling positions also recorded meteorological information with respect to direction and, where possible, wind speed with hand held anemometry. In general, the in-street wind speeds were too light to measure but the direction confirmed a consistent westerly flow along York Street and Marylebone Road. Southerly flow was seen in Thornton Place for most of the half hour monitoring period, but samplers to the North of Marylebone Road did not so clearly record any Southerly component flows.
The day began with volunteers meeting at 10:30am. Setting-up on-street began at about 1:30pm and everything was finally in place for the release at 4:30pm. The final samplers were collected back at the site office at around 6:30pm and we left site around 8pm.
The experiment on Wednesday 9th June was similar to that carried out in the previous week (3/6/04). The weather was sunny (about 3/8 cloud) and the roof top wind was from the SW at a speed of 5m/s. PFC tracers were released for 15 minutes from a release van parked in York Street and also in this case from the Library roof. Setting-up on-street began at about mid-day, the release began at 2pm and the final samplers were collected back at the site-office at around 4pm.
Dust experiment 26/5/04
Two road gritting experiments took place in Gloucester Place on Wednesday May 26th, the main objectives being to investigate the rate and scale of grit and associated dust dispersion. The weather was dry and cloudy during the experimental period, with rain later. Winds were light and from SE above roof; the main flow was northerly and intermittent along Gloucester Place, with a significant cross-street component, and characterised by periods of low speed, especially when the traffic wasn't moving. Grit was applied along a 50m section of Gloucester Place and its movement along the road surface and through the air measured. Road-side sonic anemometers were deployed to measure street-level wind conditions and a supporting tracer experiment using SF6 was also carried out.
A large number of the Consortium members attended a fieldwork meeting (held at the Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds) on 4th March 2004 to discuss the fieldwork plans for the forthcoming field campaign and to finalise the preferred deployment positions of the fixed equipment. Samantha Arnold, the Field Campaign Manager, is currently in discussions with TfL to confirm the positions of fixed equipment.
Consortium groups have been visiting the field site throughout the month in preparation for the field campaign, which starts on 19th April 2004.
A policy seminar on Exposure Monitoring, will be given at Imperial College London by Peter Walsh, a DAPPLE project collaborator and PAG member from the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL), on 12th February. Peter will speak on the HSL and DAPPLE collaboration which has taken a previously fixed location occupational health monitoring procedure, combining real time exposure monitoring and video visualisation, and developed it into a means of monitoring and interpreting real time exposure of people as they move through the urban environment.
Transport for London (TfL) will be holding a DAPPLE update meeting on 4th February at which Alan Robins, DAPPLE Project Leader, Rex Britter, organiser of the DAPPLE Application Subgroup and Samantha Arnold, DAPPLE Fieldwork Manager, will be reporting the projects progress and plans for the forthcoming second measurment campaign in April/May 2004.
On 29th January 7:00-8:30pm, Samantha Arnold, DAPPLE Fieldwork Manager, will be speaking to the Air Pollution section of the Marylebone Area Forum meeting at Westminster Council House, along with Steve Nevile the Environmental Health Officer for Westmister Council and Jo Abbott, the meeting organiser, from the Environment Dept, Westminster Council
The next Project Advisory Group Meeting (PAG) and Application Sub-Group (ASG) Meeting have been arranged for 19 January 2004 at the University of Reading. This will provide an opportunity for DAPPLE to update the PAG members on the activities of DAPPLE and for the ASG to start looking at and guiding the development of the project outputs.